Pineapple Farm Management

Area Preparation

There is a difference in implementing soft and mineral soil area.

Peat Soil


  1. A drains flow should be built initially to lower the water level for the peat soil condition in Malaysia which constantly traps water.
Type of drainMeasurement (m)

2. Excessive flow will increase the declining process which results in a continuous dry soil. Tree growth will be obstructed.

Cutting and Cleaning of Area
1.Done in the hot season, 3-4 months and the wood will dry out.

Road & Lane Construction
1. Large pieces of wood are being cut into 5m long, arranged vertically on suggested roads as a layer of support. Laterite is compressed into 10-20 cm thick on top of it.
2. Lanes are constructed from laterite layers 10-20 cm thick and 3-4 m wide.

Download Pineapple Farm Management Manual (Moris, Gandul, N 36, Josapine)(PDF)

Preparation of Planting Components

A pineapple tree can be planted from sections such as the head, root stem, root ventilation hole or soil.

Seed Options
Choose seeds from main tree which contain the following characteristics:-

1. Fertilized and healthy tree
2. Large fruit
3. Short stem and strong
4. A single head
Choices can increase production from 10-15%

Seed Intake
Collect the seeds after achieving a size of 30-60 cm (1’-2’) long which is around 4 months from the plucking date.

Seed Classification
Separate seeds according to the following sizes:



Storing Seeds
When it is needed to be kept before planting, storage steps should be followed to prevent damage and being destroyed.
1.Seed is arranged in a layer with the position of the base turned upwards.
2.Kept in a safe and well-ventilated place.
3.Ensure that storing is not done in more than 1 month.

Seed Treatment
If there is a need to eliminate insects or algae, the seed must be dipped in a concentrated insect or algae poison.

Insect poison : 24ml Malathion + 18l (4 gallons) water
Algae poison : Benlate 75C Concentration


The main or mixed cultivation system is much dependant on economy and environmental factors.

Each system is advised to be cultivated in a twin row arrangement.

Cultivation density
Cultivation density is dependent on the implementation objective of the project, type of seed and cultivation system.

In general, the main cultivation density for each seed is 43,500 trees/hectare or 17,424 trees/acre with a plantation length of 90cm x 60cm x 30cm (3’x2’x1’)

High cultivation density, > 50,000 tree/hectare (20,000 tree/acre) fulfills the requirements of product increase.

Planting Method
A stake wood tied by a string or wire is used as a line marker. The string or rope is marked for measuring the length of plantation along the line.

‘Tugal’ wood is used to create a cultivation hole along the spread string. Depth of the hole is 10-15cm (4-6 inches) is suitable with the size of the seed 30-60cm (1’-2’) long.

Root cultivation of the same size in the same area. One root for each hole, soil surrounding is pressed in order to make the root unmoved.

Planting Season
Small size – cultivation in the damp season.
Large size – cultivation for the whole year.

Weed Control

Weed Control
A few characteristics of soft soil in Malaysia encourage certain types of weed growth.
1. High ability to trap water
2. High water level
3. High amount of annual rain
4. High organic contents and low pH suitable with species of certain weed.

Practice Control Culture Method:
Weed control by using hand, pulling, cutting, digging and covered.

Chemical Method:
Various brands of traditional poison require a control step.

Weed Control After Planting
1. Paraquat 50-100ml/18 litre of water to destroy grass which are merely visible.
2. Glyphosate 80-100ml litre of water for tall grass. If necessary, should be repeated in 4-6 weeks later.

Weed Control After Planting
Use premixed weed poison and is sprayed across the surface of the soil.

PoisonBrandRate per 18l of waterRotation/CultivationControlPeriod(mth)
KROVAR 1120g2 times4-6



120g3-4times1 1/2-3





120g3-4times1 1/2-3

A few weeks after it is sprayed, a few weed starts to grow. With that, replanting the grass must be done before the weed grows flowers or produces fruit/seedlings.

A fertilization, schedule and rate of fertilization general formula for pineapple cultivation on peat soil have been determined.Fertilization Spread Formulation
NutrientsWeight/acreWater volume
BS-1Dehydrated Powder24kg640g8kg
Zinc Sulfate1.5kg42g500g
Copper Sulfate1.5kg42g500g
Ferum Sulfate0.75kg21g250g
BS-2All BS-1 nutrients above and Urea24kg640g8kg
Spread Fertilization Formulation 1. Pineapple mixed fertilizer (BCN) is based on NPK in a ratio of 30:1:32 which are suitable for pineapple cultivation of various cultivars in soft soil. 2. For trees, the BCN requirement for each fertilization is 14g/tree. 3. For an entire life-cycle, BCM pineapple cultivation is needed as much as 42g/tree.
NutrientWeight 100kgBCN%
Ammonium Sulfate (SA)72kg72
Christmas Island Rock
Phosphate (CIRP)1kg1
Muriate of Potash (MOP)27kg27
Blossoming Flow (Hormone)

A pineapple tree in a normal situation experiences self bloom on the 12-18 month after it is planted.

A few environmental factors such as temperature, daytime period and the amount of sunlight reflection are able to trigger the formation of the natural flower.

The rapid growth rate which is the result of the effects of excessive nitrogen fertilization, water flow or rain will prevent blossoming of flowers.

Pineapple is a plantation which is aware of the chemical growth control ingredients.

Usage of Blossom Hormone

NAA Pill
1. 1 seed/tree
2. Inserted directly in the pineapple stem.

NAA Liquid (Plano fix)
1. 4.5 ml Planofix/18l water
2. 50 ml concentration is sprayed or poured on the center of each tree.

Ethephon (Ethrel)v
1. 30 ml ETHREL + 180g Urea + 18l water
2. 40-50ml concentration of each tree. Sprayed or poured on the center of each tree.

ASETILENA (Calcium Karbaid)
1. 200g Calcium Karbaid + 18l water
2. 50 ml tree concentration. Sprayed or poured to the center of the tree stem.

Flow Time
1. Night time is the most effective period.
2. The most suitable time is during early morning and late evening.

Characteristics of Tree Suitability
1. Healthy and fertilized.
2. Have 35-40 functional fresh leaves.
3. 1 month after fertilization.

The success of blossoming flow is evaluated through the blossoming percentage which occurs after 45-60 days.

The blossom percentage calculation is conducted when the pineapple tree stem has produced a red coloured flower.

Fruit Size Manipulation

2-(3 chlorophenoxy) propionic acid or in short CPA (3-CP) is a type of chemical hormone to generate fruit growth especially for kv.gandul. In the market, an example of this hormone is FRUITONE CPA.

Purpose of Usage

  1. Increase fruit size.
  2. Assist the top section growth of the pineapple thus motivating the fruit growth.
  3. Make the fruit skin thicker to prevent damage during carrying and transferring to the factory.
  4. Compress the pineapple fillings to prevent injuries.

Rate of Usage

  1. 1ml CPA (3-CP) + 1 litre of water
  2. 50ml concentration of each seed by spraying the whole section of the fruit when the flowers are almost gone.

In general, pineapple fruit can begin harvested when these fruits starts to ripe especially on its skin colour. Ripen fruits are good quality and market guarantee.

Maturity Index

The Maturity Index is a guide which refers to skin colour change which also changes the internal characteristics of the fruit fillings and level of acid sugar contents.

Maturity Index (Gandul Pineapple)

  1. Colour of braktea changes from red to pale white.
  2. Colour of fruitlet changes from red to blackish brown.
  3. Between 146-152 days after the date of blossoming flow.

Late harvesting will affect fruit quality. When 25% of the fruit turns yellow, the fruit filling has become ferment and is unsuitable to be canned.

Maturity Index of Various Cultivar of Fresh Pineapple




Skin colour

Filling colour

Dark green



Pale green


Pale yellow



Pale yellow

RIPE FRUIT: Early maturity


Skin at bottom section of fruit.

Center of fruit

Fruit filing



Pale yellow






Light green


Increased Maturity


Transition of skin colour widens to the edge of

the fruit filling






Golden yellow



Golden yellow

Final Maturity


Skin colour

Center of fruit

Fruit filling



Red Yellow

More yellowish

Completely yellow



Completely yellow




Malaysian Pineapple Industry Board
Wisma Nanas, No. 5, Jalan Padi Mahsuri
Bandar Baru UDA,
81200 Johor Bahru,
Johor, Malaysia

Hotline : 07-236 1211 / 07-236 1012
Fax No : 07-236 5694 / 07-236 5451

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